The iconography that is distinctive to Sinai includes depictions of the All-holy Theotokos of the Burning Bush, the revelation of the Law to the Prophet Moses, and the life and martyrdom of Saint Catherine. The presence at Sinai of Moses and Elias, and their speaking with Christ at the Transfiguration, has ensured that this also is a frequent depiction at Sinai. This is to be seen, most importantly, in the mosaic that adorns the apse of the basilica.

Included with these would be depictions of the saints of Sinai, which include icons of the Heavenly Ladder of Saint John Climacus. There also exist depictions of the general area of Sinai, painted in the form of an icon, which convey the belief that the entire area was sanctified.

One finds these images on panel icons, on frescoes that adorn walls and ceilings, in mosaics, in illuminated manuscripts, engraved on metal, carved in wood, or embroidered with silk and metallic threads. These depictions are often the prototypes of iconography that has since been employed throughout the Orthodox Christian world.